Archive for the 'Art' Category

PISSARRO AT THE MUSÉE D’ORSAY

291 Hill at l'Hermitage 1873

Hill at l’Hermitage, 1873, PDRS 291, Musée d’Orsay, Paris.

When is a painting more abstract than Impressionist? Camille Pissarro answers that question in this painting, currently on view at the Musée d’Orsay in Paris.  It is an “allover” painting that covers the canvas and spills out over the sides. The horizon is so high that it virtually eliminates the fragment of hazy blue-grey sky.

The focal point, if you can call it that, is the large house, flat as a signboard, on the left. It fights for attention with the intense green blocks of grass in the foreground and the curved stripes of green spouting out of its roof. Behind it are other flattened rooftops stretching across the field to a tall structure with many windows. In the foreground is what must be a road covered with green diagonal slash marks. Two scraggly trees do little to soften the many angles. The peasant man struggling up the hill is so realistic that he seems out of place in this abstract arrangement.

What was probably a small cluster of common hillside dwellings on a dreary day became an intriguing arrangement of paint on canvas as seen through Pissarro’s sensations.

In July 1872, Cézanne moved near to Pissarro’s home in Pontoise, and the two artists worked side-by-side on a daily basis for almost two years. He must have seen this painting by Pissarro, and it may have inspired him to seek motifs with similar geometric possibilities. The Hanged Man’s House, Auvers-sur-Oise (1873) is replete with opposing diagonals set against the strong perpendiculars of two tree trunks and the right edge of the house. He uses a strong curve on the right to indicate the steep descent of the path. However, Cézanne did not adopt Pissarro’s flattening of structures and elimination of perspective. His houses have volume making them more realistic, and the hazy hills suggest distance in a very traditional way.

Cezanne Hanged Man's House

Paul Cézanne, The Hanged Man’s House, Auvers-sur-Oise, 1873, Musée d’Orsay, Paris.

At this time, the Musée d’Orsay provides a unique opportunity to compare these two paintings. A large wall in the Impressionist galleries contains a row of six Pissarro paintings.  In the center beside Pissarro’s Hill at l’Hermitage hangs Cézanne’s The Hanged Man’s House. It pays tribute to Pissarro’s role in Cézanne’s artistic development. Describing the interactions between the two artists, Joseph Rishel, art historian and Cézanne expert wrote, “Pissarro’s influence on Cézanne cannot be overestimated.”[1]

My new book ABSTRACT PISSARRO compares these two paintings.  Watch this space for the upcoming publication date.

[1] Cachin et al., Cézanne, 378. 

ABSTRACT PISSARRO, the first investigation of abstract elements in the paintings of Camille Pissarro will be published in coming months. 

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PISSARRO in Boston

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Woman and Goat at Eragny, 1889, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, PDRS 874

Among the many splendid Pissarro paintings at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, this one stands out for its stark geometric composition. At this time, Pissarro had been living in Éragny for five years, experimenting with Pointillism. He was already losing patience with the technique because it was so time-consuming.  He complained to Lucien in an 1887 letter, “Maybe I will be forced to come back to my old way?  It is embarrassing.”[1] While the color division is evident in this painting, he has moved away from the dot to a short stroke, creating a dense texture. Seeing this painting in person, you are immediately aware of the freshness and brightness of the greens, reds, and yellows.

Even more striking than the brushstroke is the sharp, angular aspect of the painting, which suppresses any softness of the rural scene. The tall green hedge creates a dark diagonal, cutting through the canvas at its lower third. The steep red roof, complementary to the green hedge, creates an undisputed focal point, most of which is hidden from the viewer. In the foreground, the flowers are separated by a line that creates a sharp angle with the hedge. In the background, several dark horizontal lines cut through the green grass and follow the diagonal of the hedge. The only curved object is the dark green crown of the tree. The woman and goat, headed out of view, seem almost incidental.

This painting was made at a time when Pissarro was experimenting with geometric composition and abstract design. That same year, he made two paintings (see below) that are decidedly abstract in appearance. These paintings show how Pissarro was able to embrace every form of design from Impressionist to abstract and all levels in between.

871 The Path, Women Chatting 1890

The Path, Women Chatting, 1889, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, MI, PDRS 871.

873 Landscape with a Flock of Sheep 1889-1902

Landscape with a Flock of Sheep, 1889-1902 Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, CA PDRS 873

[1] Camille Pissarro: Letters to His Son Lucien, ed. John Rewald, p. 115.Nor

PISSARRO – Seeing Paint on Canvas

 

1305 Tuilleries Snow 1900 2

The Tuileries Gardens, Effect of Snow, 1900, Private collection, PDRS 1305

 

This beautiful painting could be a snowy field anywhere. There are almost no identifying features. The hazy steeples behind the barren trees provide no clues. It is only because of Pissarro’s title, “The Tuileries Gardens, Effect of Snow,” that we realize this is the center of Paris with the twin steeples of the church of Sainte-Clotilde in the background. (1)

Now that we know the location, we can see outlines of the circular walks in the garden, and sketchy black marks that look almost like people. We realize that the odd post-like figures are actually statues surrounding the snow-covered circular pool. 

 

Statues in Tuileries

Statues surrounding circular pond in Tuileries Garden, Paris. (2)

Pissarro made this painting in a way that was not representative of the actual site. He intentionally masked identifying features and reduced the distant buildings into hazy outlines. He used the heavy snow to create a painting that is almost abstract.

Let’s try to “un-see” what we now know about the location, and view the painting itself. Pissarro reduces the scene to its basics—two wide bands separated by a narrow grayish strip. The paint in the foreground is heavy, and the brushstrokes are highly visible. The white snow is actually several shades of blue-grey with hints of light coral and pale pink in the center. The colors in the top band are more distinct— pink and white shading into pale blue. Pale grey diagonal lines, almost imperceptible, overlay the entire upper strip.

This painting is a superb example of brushwork–heavy directional strokes in the foreground and delicate lacy strokes above divided by flurries of grey-green strokes in the middle. Pissarro forces us to recognize the brushstrokes for what they are. We have to admit to its materiality—simply paint on canvas. The application of color, the vitality of the brushstrokes, and the reductive composition push this painting toward the abstract. Instead of making a picture, he made a painting. This is Pissarro’s genius.

(1) Pissarro, J. and C. Durand-Ruel Snollaerts (2005). Pissarro: Catalogue critique des peintures. Milano, Italy, Skira Editore S.p.A., III, 782.

(2) By User:Munford – Self-photographed, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1215048. Detail of original photograph.

ABSTRACT PISSARRO

railroad-to-dieppe-1886.jpg!Large

The Dieppe Railway 1886 Philadelphia Museum of Art PDRS 828

 

COMING SOON —

A new look at Camille Pissarro’s paintings

Most people are familiar with the Pissarro paintings that fulfill their expectations of Impressionism. But Pissarro made just as many paintings that look totally different. These are seldom seen in exhibitions and rarely featured in books because they have been difficult to explain until now.

ABSTRACT PISSARRO will explore the abstract elements in Pissarro’s paintings–innovations for which there was no name at the time. He was the first to experiment with many of these techniques, some of which were quickly adapted by his artist friends. The book is now being edited and should be available in a few months.

Pissarro — a snowy day in Paris

1412 Pont-Neuf effect of snow 1902

The Pont-Neuf, Effect of Snow and Fog. 1902. Private collection. PDRS 1412.

In the winter of 1901-1902, Pissarro and his family returned to Paris and stayed for the second time on the Ile de la Cité, the small island in the middle of the Seine. His apartment faced the equestrian statue of Henri IV and on both sides, he could see the Pont-Neuf connecting the island to the riverbanks. To his right beyond the statue was the Louvre and to his left, the Hotel de la Monnaie. Pissarro made 26 oil paintings from his windows during that winter.

On one snowy day, Pissarro chose a familiar view of the Pont-Neuf, looking toward the Right Bank where normally he could see flags flying on the Samaritaine department store. On this day, the buildings at the end of the bridge are hardly visible at all. The falling snow throws a glistening white veil over the entire scene, broken only by the movement of the dark carriages on the bridge.

The bridge itself is simply a diagonal separating two color blocks—the large area of sky delicately pricked by the faint outlines of buildings contrasting with the dark blue-gray triangle of water in the lower right corner. The brilliant white sky is actually made up of faint brush strokes of pink and blue, each overlapping the other. The dark water is made of solid slabs of color ranging from dark blue to light gray. Pissarro’s use of color blocks in this and many other paintings foreshadows the work of Rothko in the 1950s.

This magnificent painting was part of the recent auction at Christie’s in New York City.

 

 

 

PISSARRO and Pointillism

662 Breakfast, Peasant Girl

Young Peasant Girl Having Café au Lait, 1881, The Art Institute of Chicago, PDRS 662

 

Pissarro, like most other artists studied the color division theories of Chevreul, so he knew how to divide local (or normal) color into its different parts to increase its brilliance.  And he knew that colors placed side-by-side produce reflections on each other. It is no surprise then that in 1881, when Ogden Rood’s book, “Modern Chromatics: Students’ Text-Book of Color,”  was translated into French, Pissarro would take note of what Rood said about color division:

The effect referred to takes place when different colours are placed side by side in lines or dots, and then viewed at such a distance that the blending is more or less accomplished by the eye of the beholder. . . . If the coloured lines or dots are quite distant from the eye, the mixture is of course perfect, and presents nothing remarkable in its appearance.*

That same year, he painted “Young Peasant Girl Having Cafe au Lait” (1881) [PDRS 662], a study in the optical mixing of colors and reflections.  The blue-green on the wall behind her is reflected on the shoulder and sleeve of her pink blouse in tiny dots.  Her dark blue skirt is reflected on the front of her blouse, and the pink of her long sleeve is reflected in the skirt at the bottom of the canvas. The brushstrokes are tiny and many are criss-crossed.

All of this happened in 1881, four years before Pissarro met Seurat, years before pointillism became a painting technique, and well before the word, Neo-Impressionism was invented by art critic Félix Fénéon. Though he graciously gave Seurat all the credit for “inventing” the new scientific technique of painting, he had been experimenting with it years before!

* Rood, O. N. (1879). Modern Chromatics. London, C. Kegan Paul & Co., 279-80.

[This is a small segment from my upcoming book, ABSTRACT PISSARRO.]

 

 



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