Archive for the 'Art' Category

PISSARRO – RAINY DAY IN PARIS

The Louvre, Afternoon, Rainy Weather  1900 National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC PDR 1346

The Louvre, Afternoon, Rainy Weather 1900
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC PDR 1346

“The Louvre, Afternoon, Rainy Weather” was one of the first group of paintings Camille Pissarro made after he and his family moved to their new apartment on the Île de la Cité in November, 1900.  Formerly, a part of the collection of The Corcoran Gallery of Art, it has just been hung in its new home at the National Gallery of Art, ( West Building, Gallery M-89) Washington, DC. (See it on their Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/nationalgalleryofart?fref=ts)

Among their Pissarro paintings, the National Gallery has two others made in Paris: “Boulevard des Italiens” (1897) and “Place du Carrousel, Paris” (1900), a view of the Louvre in the spring from his former apartment on Rue Rivoli. (See those on the website of the National Gallery of Art by searching for Camille Pissarro works.)

This paintings is obviously a view from the apartment’s front window because it includes a corner of the Place du Pont-Neuf where the statue of Henri IV is located. It appears that a rain storm has just passed, leaving the surface of the Place wet and shiny. Pissarro painted this same view many more times before his death in 1903, depicting it in every possible weather situation and with varying boat traffic in the river.

The composition of this painting is determined by the motif. The corner of the Place on the lower left side gives the painting a decidedly asymmetrical feel, suggesting an imaginary diagonal line pointing towards tthe Louvre in the middle right side. The two boats shown steaming toward the bridge suggest another imaginary diagonal from right lower corner to middle left side, forming an X across the painting. The bridge cuts across the diagonals virtually through the middle of the canvas, its severity softened by the graceful arches.  On the left, the curved branches of the  trees echo the arches.

The hand of the master is most evident in the surface of the Place and the water, each of them composed of countless brushstrokes. The shiny orange surface of the Place actually includes shades of coral, yellow, lavender, pink, white, and brick red. The complimentary dark blue of the woman’s dress intensifies the orangey tones. The choppy waters of the Seine are depicted in shades of gray, ranging from nearly white to dark slate. Tiny streaks of deep blue are complemented with pale dashes of dark orange.

This is one of Pissarro’s paintings that really must be seen in person—but then, wouldn’t we prefer to study all of them in person?

PISSARRO AND THE STILL LIFE

Apples and Pears in a Circular Basket, 1872 Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ  PDR 269

Apples and Pears in a Circular Basket, 1872
Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ PDR 269

This gorgeous painting is one of those featured in the exhibition, “Discovering the Impressionists,” at the Philadelphia Museum of Art.  Durand-Ruel, the art dealer bought it from Pissarro the same year it was painted.  This was just one year after Pissarro and Durand-Ruel both returned to France from London where they went to escape the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.

Pissarro must have painted two still lives at about the same time because they both feature the pink striped wallpaper and the table with a white cloth.  The other one, a study of apples and glazed earthenware, appears to be very conventional and realistic in that the plate, vase and wine glass seem to be sitting very solidly on the table with normal shadows.  However, this one is almost radical in its composition.

The basket is tilted forward so much that it seems to be levitating.  The back rim is much higher than it would be if the basket were sitting flat on the table.  The shadow to the left of the basket reinforces the illusion, since in that shadowed space, we can almost see under the basket. The deep creases in the tablecloth lead our eyes to the basket, accenting its odd placement.

This is far from a routine still life, it is totally radical.  And this is what Pissarro was doing a full two years before the First Impressionist Exhibition.

See it in the Durand-Ruel exhibition at PMA until September 13.

PISSARRO REQUIRES A CLOSE LOOK

The Pont-Neuf, Wet Weather (First Series) 1901 llen Memorial Art Museum Oberlin College, Ohio  1348

The Pont-Neuf, Wet Weather (First Series)
1901
llen Memorial Art Museum Oberlin College, Ohio 1348

In November 1900 Pissarro moved his family back to Paris for the winter, renting an apartment on the Île de la Cité, the island in the middle of the Seine.  From here, he had sweeping views of both sides of the river. Straight in front of him was a small plaza with a statue of Henri IV, king of France in the 16th century who issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598, establishing freedom of religion.

By the end of February 1901, Pissarro wrote his son Lucien that he had “practically finished my winter series” and described 20 paintings he had completed. “As you can see, I haven’t wasted my time altogether, thanks to my regular working hours.”  (2005, Pissarro, Durand-Ruel).

From his window, Pissarro looked across the long section of Pont Neuf, the two-part bridge that crosses the island. Throngs of pedestrians are crossing the bridge, many of them with raised umbrellas. Horse and buggy traffic maneuvers around the large omnibus, pulled by three horses. At the end of the bridge, the buildings with red flags signal the large Samaritaine department store.

This small painting (approximately 18 x 15 inches) challenges us to appreciate the subtle quality of Pissarro’s painting. If we take a quick look and move on to another painting, we miss its brilliance. Most of Pissarro’s works offer brighter colors with more contrast.  This one appears to be an exquisite study in tones of gray.

The sky looks completely gray, until we look closely and see blue behind the gray and white puffs of clouds. Except for its white railings, the bridge and water look completely gray. But  the pilings supporting the bridge get their form from a warm color that is almost a dusty creme. What little light there is shines on the water in strokes of white, but in between are strokes of fern green, and farther back light pink. We see more color on the bridge where the reddish-brown horses and buggies create a sense of movement. The brightest spot on the painting is one of the store fronts which is rose-colored. The buildings across the bridge which seem to be a drab gray are actually a light cream color. Their gray windows and slate blue roofs give them a damp, cold appearance.

Pissarro made several other paintings of this same view, and all are more colorful than this one. So why did Pissarro make a painting that at first glance appears to be drab and gray? We know that he worked on many paintings at the same time and changed from one to the other as the weather changed. But perhaps, he was using the shapes and forms of this scene to experiment with colors and brushstrokes. On the surface of the bridge, we see patches of slate blue beside dabs of light rose.  On the gray bridge pilings, the colors are actually slate blue and a light creme. On the fourth support is a small dab of light rose which almost turns the slate blue into lavendar. The buildings in the background look like toy blocks except for the slate dabs which our eyes translate as windows.

On a wall with other Impressionist paintings full of color and movement, we might be tempted to dismiss this one as less interesting. But, as with most of Pissarro’s paintings, a closer look makes all the difference and we realize that this painting is a small treasure that deserves our attention.

Current photo standing on the Pont Neuf looking toward the Samaritaine Building.

Current photo standing on the Pont Neuf looking toward the Samaritaine Building.

PISSARRO LOOKS BACK AT PONTOISE

Landscape at Pontoise, c. 1879 Private collection PDR600

Landscape at Pontoise, c. 1879
Private collection PDR 600

Several wonderful Pissarro paintings are available in the Spring sales of Impressionist paintings in New York City this year. This one, “Landscape at Pontoise,” will be offered in the Day Sale on May 15, 2015 at Christie’s. It will be especially exciting to see it in person since the Pissarro catalogue raisonné (2005) contains only a black-and-white photograph. The provenance provided by Christie’s does not list any exhibitions, so it probably has not been on view for a long time.

It is a vertical painting, generally considered an unusual choice for a landscape. At that time, most artists used horizontal canvases that would give them plenty of room on each side of their focal point. This painting is also tiny, only 16 1/8 x 13 inches, a little treasure.

Pissarro uses more than half the canvas for a thick screen of tall poplar trees which prevents us from seeing the village of Pontoise in the distance. All we get is a narrow space through which we see the steeple of the church of Saint-Maclou, now a cathedral, and a couple of red roofs. Even in this close-up, the church steeple is indistinct and though our eyes are drawn to it, it is obviously not a the most important element (focal point) in the painting.

steeple detail

In the foreground, we see a woman bending over and a man in the distance. As we know, many of Pissarro’s paintings have no particular focal point–no large or important element that dominates the view. In this one, both the woman and man are mere sketches rendered in a few brushstrokes and hardly large enough to be important.

woman detail

Though the trees dominate the painting, they have no real importance–all they do is prevent us from seeing what is beyond. Pissarro developed this device about ten years earlier in his 1869 painting, “The Village Screened by Trees.” According to the catalogue raisonné, that was the first time that he used this screening device.

The Village Screened by Trees  c. 1869 Private collection PDR 134

The Village Screened by Trees c. 1869
Private collection PDR 134

We see trees used in similar ways in the paintings of Corot, with whom Pissarro had painted as a young man. But Corot’s paintings always had a focal point, and his trees were never as thick and as dominant as those in Pissarro’s screens.  Pissarro continued to use this compositional device throughout his career. Because this painting has no real focal point, we are forced to look at the painting literally as paint on canvas and enjoy the energy and movement of Pissarro’s brushstrokes.

The Lot Notes provided by Christie’s for this painting say, “Paysage à Pontoise was painted during a period when Pissarro was increasingly using small, stabbing brushstrokes of color to render his images, prefiguring Neo-Impressionism. … Pissarro has paid particular attention to enriching the painted surface with a stippling effect on the trees and the overgrown field.”

trees detail

Pissarro is painting in a way that was still very new for that time. He made this painting in 1879, the year of the Fourth Impressionist Exhibition. The art establishment of that time continued to favor paintings in which brushstrokes were invisible and the surface of the painting was smooth.  Pissarro is, once again, defying the accepted practice. Seen up close, it looks like he was applying the paint with wild abandonment–stabs of blue and white in the sky and green and dark green for the trees. A faint touch of light red among the green gives it even more brilliance.

This view of Pontoise from the nearby village of Ennery was lovely on a sunny day, but Pissarro was not interested in giving us a photographic reproduction. If all we see is the location, then we have missed the point. Pissarro used this view to provide an engaging design for putting paint on canvas.

PISSARRO AND SPRINGTIME IN PONTOISE

Factor on the Banks of the Oise 1873 Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown (MA) PDR 300

Factory on the Banks of the Oise 1873
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown (MA) PDR 300

This painting is one of Pissarro’s most famous and well-loved paintings. Fortunately, it lives at the wonderful Clark Art Institute and can be seen by the public. If you go to Paris, take the train to Pontoise and visit the Musée Pissarro. The following blog is taken from my book PISSARRO’S PLACES (pissarrosplaces.com).

One warm spring day, Pissarro took his easel to the banks of the Oise river and made a painting that is archetypical of the Impressionist style: the lavish portrayal of sunlight, the consciousness of the changing weather as gray clouds fill the intense blue sky, the presence of modernity in the new factories lining the banks of the Oise River; and the immediacy of the scene that bespeaks en plein air painting.

The painting itself has a classic composition divided almost equally between the sky and the earth, with the river dwindling away on the right side. The water, still as a mirror, reflects the smokestacks and buildings on the other side and connects them with the freshness of the spring flowers in the right foreground. The factory, a distillery, had just been completed in 1872.

One of the old factories still standing on the banks of the Oise.

One of the old factories still standing on the banks of the Oise.

 

 

PISSARRO PAINTING LOOTED BY THE NAZIS TO BE RETURNED TO RIGHTFUL OWNERS

The Louvre, Morning, 1902, PDR 1418

The Louvre, Morning, 1902, PDR 1418

THIS STORY IS REPRINTED FROM A REPORT ON FRANCE 24, APRIL 1, 2015.

The painting shown above is taken from a news story at https://news.artnet.com/in-brief/nazi-looted-pissarro-discovered-in-gurlitt-trove-gifted-to-bern-188836, and matches information in the Pissarro Catalogue Raisonne (2005) for PDR 1418.

BERLIN (AFP) – Germany said Wednesday experts had established a Camille Pissarro painting from the Cornelius Gurlitt art trove was looted by the Nazis and should be returned to the heirs of its rightful owners.

The oil painting from 1902 entitled “La Seine vue du Pont-Neuf, au fond le Louvre” (The Seine seen from the Pont Neuf) is “absolutely certain” to have been looted by Hitler’s regime, the German culture ministry said.

“For the restitution, we are already in contact with the heiress of the former owner,” Culture Minister Monika Gruetters said in a statement, without identifying the family.

Gurlitt, who died in May aged 81, had hoarded more than 1,000 paintings, drawings and sketches, including masterpieces by the likes of Picasso and Chagall, in his Munich flat for decades.

The Pissarro piece was discovered among more works uncovered at his Salzburg, Austria home.

The artworks were acquired by his powerful father Hildebrand Gurlitt who was tasked by the Nazis with selling artwork stolen from Jewish families in the 1930s and 1940s.

Research by a German government-appointed task force has already established that the artworks “Seated Woman” by Henri Matisse and “Two Riders on the Beach”, painted by Max Liebermann, should be returned to the heirs of their rightful owners.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Bern, Switzerland, agreed in November to accept the controversial art trove left behind by Cornelius Gurlitt.

THE SAME YOUNG PISSARRO –STILL IN VENEZUELA

Landscape with Women under a Large Tree c. 1854-55  PDR 7 Private collection

Landscape with Women under a Large Tree
c. 1854-55 PDR 7
Private collection

The 24-year old artist who painted Landscape with Women under  Large Tree around 1854-55 is the very same one who painted Market Scene on the Plaza Mayor, Caracas, featured in the previous post.

The differences in the two paintings are obvious.  Market Scene is highly realistic, with hard edges and bright clear colors. The campanile of the cathedral of Santiago in the background is accurate in detail. The cloudless sky is a deep blue, fading just a bit as it touches the rooftops. The rider’s red coat is carefully modeled to give form to his body. The reflection of the brilliant sun on the white awning contrasts with deep shadows that blur the profiles of the two women. The painting is an intentional representation of an actual scene.

The landscape featured in this post could hardly be more different. The painting is a blend of greens, oranges and browns, with only the cloudy sky for escape. The immense tree  almost disappears into the mountains behind it. We would not know where the tree ends and the ground begins were it not for the figures that may or may not be women. Their forms are simply a few blobs of white paint with touches of red complimenting the greens. Our eyes, searching for something recognizable, see an umbrella in the horizontal stroke and believe it is held by a woman.

Detail from Landscape with Women under a Large Tree

Detail from Landscape with Women under a Large Tree

The detail (below) from the center of the tree reveals the artist’s brushwork. (These details were taken from a photograph and only suggest what could be seen on the original painting.) Pissarro used small groups of diagonal strokes to construct the tree. Just above the spiky white form at the bottom, we see groups of light green diagonal strokes and nearby a patch of orange strokes. To the left, larger fatter strokes call attention to a dark area that creates a negative space. Nowhere in this painting do we see a realistic leaf or group of leaves, only groups of brushstrokes. The strokes depicting the treetop silhouetted against the sky are so thin that they virtually dissolve into the gray-white clouds. Near the center top of the trees, some bare limbs are outlined in white. This is the primary clue that the brown, green and orange form might be a tree.

Detail from Landscape with Women under a Large Tree

Detail from Landscape with Women under a Large Tree

Pissarro traveled to Venezuela with his friend Fritz Melbye, who painted native scenes in which different types of trees, bushes and vines can be identified. Pissarro also made some paintings like that as shown in Tropical Forest, Galipan.

Tropical Forest, Galipan c. 1854  PDR 6 Private collection

Tropical Forest, Galipan
c. 1854 PDR 6
Private collection

What then was Pissarro’s intent in painting the tree? Clearly, it was not a painting of the women since they are indistinguishable. He obviously was not recording botanical elements since there are no details of the foliage.

Pissarro downplayed the reality of the scene in order to call attention to the paint—the brushstrokes themselves, the groups of strokes used to construct the forms, the subtle variations in colors—dark greens, medium greens, light gray-greens, burnt orange. If you forget the tree, you see dark spaces invaded on the right by light tans and on the left by light greens.

Look again at the detail above and you see abstract painting similar to that created in the 1950s. Remember: this was 1854-55; Pissarro was only 24 years old, had not yet moved to Paris, and Impressionism was 20 years in the future.


Categories

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 100 other followers

PISSARRO’S PLACES


Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 100 other followers

%d bloggers like this: